Reactive oxygen species mediate high glucose-induced heparanase-1 production and heparan sulphate proteoglycan degradation in human and rat endothelial cells: a potential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
SourceDiabetologia, 54, 6, (2011), pp. 1527-38
01 juni 2011
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectNCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The content of heparan sulphate is reduced in the endothelium under hyperglycaemic conditions and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Heparanase-1 (HPR1) specifically degrades heparan sulphate proteoglycans. We therefore sought to determine whether: (1) heparan sulphate reduction in endothelial cells is due to increased HPR1 production through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; and (2) HPR1 production is increased in vivo in endothelial cells under hyperglycaemic and/or atherosclerotic conditions. METHODS: HPR1 mRNA and protein levels in endothelial cells were analysed by RT-PCR and Western blot or HPR1 enzymatic activity assay, respectively. Cell surface heparan sulphate levels were analysed by FACS. HPR1 in the artery from control rats and a rat model of diabetes, and from patients under hyperglycaemic and/or atherosclerotic conditions was immunohistochemically examined. RESULTS: High-glucose-induced HPR1 production and heparan sulphate degradation in three human endothelial cell lines, both of which were blocked by ROS scavengers, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine. Exogenous H(2)O(2) induced HPR1 production, subsequently leading to decreased cell surface heparan sulphate levels. HPR1 content was significantly increased in endothelial cells in the arterial walls of a rat model of diabetes. Clinical studies revealed that HPR1 production was increased in endothelial cells under hyperglycaemic conditions, and in endothelial cells and macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Hyperglycaemia induces HPR1 production and heparan sulphate degradation in endothelial cells through ROS. HPR1 production is increased in endothelial cells from a rat model of diabetes, and in macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesions of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Increased HPR1 production may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis.
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