High urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease in patients with IgA nephropathy
SourceNephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation, 26, 11, (2011), pp. 3581-8
Article / Letter to editor
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Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
SubjectNCEBP 2: Evaluation of complex medical interventions; ONCOL 3: Translational research IGMD 9: Renal disorder; IGMD 9: Renal disorder
BACKGROUND: The variable course of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) warrants accurate tools for the prediction of progression. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are markers for the detection of early tubular damage caused by various renal conditions. We evaluated the prognostic value of these markers in patients with IgAN. METHODS: We included patients (n = 65, 72% male, age 43 +/- 13 years) with biopsy-proven IgAN, who were evaluated for proteinuria. Urinary KIM-1 and NGAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analysed data using Cox regression for the outcome end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESULTS: Median serum creatinine was 142 mumol/L and proteinuria 2.2 g/day. During follow-up (median 75 months), 23 patients (35%) developed ESRD. In patients with IgAN median urinary KIM-1 excretion was 1.7 ng/min and NGAL excretion was 47 ng/min, both significantly higher than in healthy controls. KIM-1 and NGAL were correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.40 and 0.34, respectively, P < 0.01) and each other (r = 0.53, P < 0.01) but not with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Interestingly, KIM-1 was not significantly correlated with the excretion of alpha(1)-microglobulin (alpha(1)m) and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m), known markers of tubular injury. Univariate analysis showed that baseline serum creatinine and urinary excretion of total protein, alpha(1)m, beta(2)m, immunoglobulin G, KIM-1 and NGAL were significantly associated with ESRD. By multivariate analysis, serum creatinine and KIM-1 excretion proved to be significant independent predictors of ESRD. CONCLUSION: KIM-1 and NGAL excretion are increased in patients with IgAN and correlate with proteinuria but not with eGFR. Baseline serum creatinine and urinary KIM-1, but not proteinuria, are independent predictors of ESRD.
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