Minimal invasive electrode implantation for conditional stimulation of the dorsal genital nerve in neurogenic detrusor overactivity
SourceSpinal Cord, 49, 4, (2011), pp. 566-572
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectDCN 1: Perception and Action
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. OBJECTIVES: Electrical stimulation of the dorsal genital nerves (DGN) suppresses involuntary detrusor contractions (IDCs) in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (DO). The feasibility of minimal invasive electrode implantation near the DGN and the effectiveness of conditional stimulation to suppress IDCs at different amplitudes in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with DO were studied. SETTING: Radboud University Nijmegen MC, The Netherlands. METHODS: In eight healthy volunteers, a needle electrode was inserted from both a medial and lateral-to-midline site at the level of the pubic bone. Electrode insertion was guided by the genito-anal reflex (GAR) evoked by electrical stimulation and by sensation to this stimulation. In eight SCI patients with DO, the bladder was repeatedly filled and emptied partially in between. Conditional stimulation using a needle electrode was applied when an IDC was observed at urodynamics. Different amplitudes were used during each filling. Control cystometry was carried out before electrode insertion and after stimulation. RESULTS: The lateral implant approach was preferred, as it was easier to manoeuvre the needle along the pubic bone and fixate the needle. In SCI patients, the electrode was positioned successfully, and IDCs were suppressed (range 1-6 IDC suppressions) with conditional stimulation at maximum tolerable amplitude, except for one patient. Stimulation was less effective at lower amplitudes. Stimulation lowered the intensity of bladder sensations concomitant with IDC. CONCLUSION: The lateral-to-midline implant approach, in combination with GAR and sensation to stimulation, is feasible for electrode implantation near the DGN in SCI patients. Conditional stimulation effectively suppresses IDCs.
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