Dependency of phenprocoumon dosage on polymorphisms in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 genes
SourcePharmacogenetics and Genomics, 21, 1, (2011), pp. 26-34
Article / Letter to editor
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Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
SubjectN4i 2: Invasive mycoses and compromised host; N4i 3: Poverty-related infectious diseases NCEBP 13: Infectious diseases and international health; NCEBP 3: Implementation Science; NCEBP 3: Implementation Science
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on warfarin and acenocoumarol showed that interindividual dosage variation is mainly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VKORC1 and to a lesser extent in CYP2C9 and CYP4F2. For phenprocoumon dosage, the genes encoding CYP3A4 and ApoE might play a role. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between common genetic variants within VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, CYP3A4, and ApoE and phenprocoumon maintenance dosage, and to identify novel signals using GWAS. METHODS: We selected all participants from the Rotterdam study who were treated with phenprocoumon. For each SNP, we tested the association between the above-mentioned genotypes and age, sex, body mass index, and target INR adjusted-phenprocoumon maintenance dosage. RESULTS: Within our study population (N=244), VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 genotypes together explained 46% of phenprocoumon maintenance dosage variation. Each additional VKORC1 variant allele reduced phenprocoumon maintenance dosage by 4.8 mg/week (P<0.0001) and each additional CYP2C9 variant allele by 2.2 mg/week (P=0.002). Each additional variant allele of CYP4F2 increased phenprocoumon dosage by 1.5 mg/week (P=0.022). Variant alleles of CYP3A41*B and ApoE showed no association with phenprocoumon dosage. Genome-wide significant SNPs were all related to VKORC1 activity. Best associated were two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other and with SNPs within VKORC1: rs10871454 [Syntaxin 4A (STX4A)] and rs11150604 (ZNF646), each with a P value of 2.1x10(2)(2). Each reduced phenprocoumon maintenance dosage weekly by 4.9 mg per variant allele. CONCLUSION: Similar to earlier findings with warfarin and acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon maintenance dosage depended on polymorphisms in the VKORC1 gene. CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 were of modest relevance.
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