Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer
SourceNature Reviews. Urology, 8, 1, (2011), pp. 42-49
Article / Letter to editor
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Nature Reviews. Urology
SubjectONCOL 3: Translational research; ONCOL 4: Quality of Care
Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the risk of progression is less than 1% in 5 years, almost 15% will recur after 1 year, and 32% after 5 years. A complete transurethral resection, followed by an immediate single postoperative instillation of chemotherapy will reduce the risk of recurrence for the first 2 years. Follow-up cystoscopy is required to detect recurrence; in the vast majority of cases the recurrent tumor is of the same stage and grade as the primary tumor. The first follow-up visit, 3 months after surgery, is the most important in predicting risk of recurrence for the future. Recent developments in profiling urine and cancer tissue make it possible to better predict risk of progression and recurrence. In the future this profiling will play an important role in the timing and the choice of treatment, as well as guiding follow-up procedures.
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