Biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostatic inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia
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SourceProstate, 71, 15, (2011), pp. 1701-1709
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectNCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease
BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatic inflammation could be a central mechanism in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. Currently, the histological examination of prostate biopsies remains the only way to diagnose prostatic inflammation. Our objective was to find new noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostatic inflammation. METHODS: Ninety BPH samples were investigated in two steps. First, a hypothesis was generated using a profiling procedure with a panel of 96 genes on an initial set of 30 samples. Then, the candidate biomarkers were validated on a large number of samples (n = 90). Gene expression was compared with the histological prostatic inflammation score based on the density and the confluence of lymphoid nodules. Finally, protein transcripts of the candidate biomarkers were investigated in urine samples and compared with clinical data. RESULTS: Of the 96 genes, nine were significantly correlated with the inflammation score on the initial set of patients. Four of them were validated on the complete set of patients: CCR7, CD40LG, CTLA4, and ICOS. ICOS and CTLA4 protein levels were readily measured in urine samples using a conventional ELISA procedure. High-ICOS expression in urine was associated with a higher post-void residual and a lower maximum urinary flow rate. CONCLUSIONS: Four genes were significantly upregulated at the mRNA level in the prostate tissue of patients with severe inflammation score. Two proteins were measured in urine samples, and were associated with maximum uroflowmetry and post-void residual. A prospective clinical study is needed to confirm their clinical relevance.
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