Renal proximal tubular dysfunction is a major determinant of urinary connective tissue growth factor excretion.
SourceAmerican Journal of Physiology : Renal Physiology, 298, 6, (2010), pp. F1457-64
1 juni 2010
Article / Letter to editor
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American Journal of Physiology : Renal Physiology
SubjectIGMD 9: Renal disorder
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays a key role in renal fibrosis. Urinary CTGF is elevated in various renal diseases and may have biomarker potential. However, it is unknown which processes contribute to elevated urinary CTGF levels. Thus far, urinary CTGF was considered to reflect renal expression. We investigated how tubular dysfunction affects urinary CTGF levels. To study this, we administered recombinant CTGF intravenously to rodents. We used both full-length CTGF and the NH(2)-terminal fragment, since the NH(2)-fragment is the predominant form detected in urine. Renal CTGF extraction, determined by simultaneous arterial and renal vein sampling, was 18 +/- 3% for full-length CTGF and 21 +/- 1% for the NH(2)-fragment. Fractional excretion was very low for both CTGFs (0.02 +/- 0.006% and 0.10 +/- 0.02%, respectively), indicating that >99% of the extracted CTGF was metabolized by the kidney. Immunohistochemistry revealed extensive proximal tubular uptake of CTGF in apical endocytic vesicles and colocalization with megalin. Urinary CTGF was elevated in megalin- and cubilin-deficient mice but not in cubilin-deficient mice. Inhibition of tubular reabsorption by Gelofusine reduced renal uptake of CTGF and increased urinary CTGF. In healthy volunteers, Gelofusine also induced an increase of urinary CTGF excretion, comparable to the increase of beta(2)-microglobulin excretion (r = 0.99). Furthermore, urinary CTGF correlated with beta(2)-microglobulin (r = 0.85) in renal disease patients (n = 108), and only beta(2)-microglobulin emerged as an independent determinant of urinary CTGF. Thus filtered CTGF is normally reabsorbed almost completely in proximal tubules via megalin, and elevated urinary CTGF may largely reflect proximal tubular dysfunction.
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