Steady-state nevirapine, lamivudine and stavudine levels in Malawian HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy using split Triomune 30 tablets.
until further notice
SourceAntiviral Therapy, 15, 3, (2010), pp. 343-50
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectN4i 2: Invasive mycoses and compromised host; N4i 3: Poverty-related infectious diseases; NCEBP 13: Infectious diseases and international health
BACKGROUND: Children remain under-represented in national antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in settings with limited resources and high HIV prevalence. In Malawi, an increasing number of HIV-infected children have been started on ART with split tablets of an adult fixed-dose combination drug in the past few years. In 2006, the national paediatric ART regime was changed from Triomune 40 (T40) to Triomune 30 (T30). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the paediatric ART clinic in Blantyre (Malawi) from September 2006 to July 2007. Children taking T30 for > 6 weeks from each dosing weight band (<5, 5-<8, 8-<12, 12-<14, 14-<19, 19-<26, 26-<30 and > or = 30 kg) were recruited. Plasma drug concentration, CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load were measured. RESULTS: A total of 74 children were analysed. The median nevirapine (NVP) concentration was 7.35 mg/l. A therapeutic NVP plasma level > 3 mg/l was found in 62 (87.8%) children. A subtherapeutic NVP level (< 3 mg/l) occurred significantly more often in children treated with T30 doses between one-quarter tablet once daily and one-half tablet twice daily (P=0.035). Median prescribed NVP dose was 342 mg/m(2)/day, but 13 (17.6%) children received a dose below the recommended dose of 300 mg/m(2)/day. Compared with a historical control, the median prescribed NVP dose was increased (from 243 to 342 mg/m(2)/day). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that with the Malawian T30-based ART regime, the majority (87.8%) of children in the study group achieved a therapeutic NVP level. However, treatment remains suboptimal especially for young children receiving T30 dosages less than or equal to one-half tablets twice daily and child appropriate formulations are warranted.
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