until further notice
SourceMolecular Genetics and Metabolism, 101, 4, (2010), pp. 349-56
01 december 2010
Article / Letter to editor
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Laboratory of Genetic, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases
Paediatrics - OUD tm 2017
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
SubjectDCN 1: Perception and Action; DCN 2: Functional Neurogenomics; DCN 3: Neuroinformatics; IGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; IGMD 9: Renal disorder; NCMLS 5: Membrane transport and intracellular motility
INTRODUCTION: In aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency, a neurotransmitter biosynthesis defect, paradoxical normal or increased levels of urinary dopamine have been reported. Genotype/phenotype correlations or alternative metabolic pathways may explain this remarkable finding, but were never studied systematically. METHODS: We studied the mutational spectrum and urinary dopamine levels in 20 patients with AADC-deficiency. Experimental procedures were designed to test for alternative metabolic pathways of dopamine production, which included alternative substrates (tyramine and 3-methoxytyrosine) and alternative enzymes (tyrosinase and CYP2D6). RESULTS/DISCUSSION: In 85% of the patients the finding of normal or increased urinary levels of dopamine was confirmed, but a relation with AADC genotype could not be identified. Renal microsomes containing CYP2D were able to convert tyramine into dopamine (3.0 nmol/min/g protein) but because of low plasma levels of tyramine this is an unlikely explanation for urinary dopamine excretion in AADC-deficiency. No evidence was found for the production of dopamine from 3-methoxytyrosine. Tyrosinase was not expressed in human kidney. CONCLUSION: Normal or increased levels of urinary dopamine are found in the majority of AADC-deficient patients. This finding can neither be explained by genotype/phenotype correlations nor by alternative metabolic pathways, although small amounts of dopamine may be formed via tyramine hydroxylation by renal CYP2D6. CYP2D6-mediated conversion of tyramine into dopamine might be an interesting target for the development of new therapeutic strategies in AADC-deficiency.
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