Maternal and paternal risk factors for anorectal malformations: a Dutch case-control study.
until further notice
SourceBirth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 88, 3, (2010), pp. 152-158
1 maart 2010
Article / Letter to editor
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Epidemiology, Biostatistics & HTA
Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology
SubjectIGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; IGMD 9: Renal disorder; NCEBP 12: Human Reproduction; NCEBP 1: Molecular epidemiology; NCEBP 2: Evaluation of complex medical interventions
BACKGROUND: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are major congenital malformations that usually require a multitude of surgical procedures at a very early age and have a large impact on the lives of patients and their parents. The causes of ARM are still largely unknown, but they are assumed to have a multifactorial etiology. A few studies focused on environmental risk factors, but evidence is still scarce. METHODS: In this Dutch case-control study (1996-2008), we investigated the role of maternal and paternal risk factors in the etiology of ARM. Parents of 85 ARM cases and 650 controls filled in a questionnaire. Controls were children treated with ear ventilation tubes. RESULTS: A higher occurrence of fever during the first trimester of pregnancy was found for case mothers compared to control mothers (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.9, 28.1). Maternal occupational exposure to industrial cleaning agents and solvents increased the risk of ARM three times (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.9, 9.3). Overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m(2)) before pregnancy also seemed to be associated with ARM (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), as well as maternal multivitamin use during pregnancy (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 2.7), paternal smoking (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.9), and paternal occupational exposure to exhaust fumes (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0, 3.6). Reported ARM in at least one first- or second-degree family member greatly increased the risk of having a child with an ARM (OR, 40.3; 95% CI, 4.8, 342.8). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed potential risk factors for ARM, including fever during pregnancy, maternal overweight, use of multivitamins, paternal smoking, and occupational exposures, but a familial component seems important as well.
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