Evaluation of a 99mTc-labeled AnnexinA5 variant for non-invasive SPECT imaging of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate.
SourcePharmaceutical Research, 26, 12, (2009), pp. 2647-2656
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectIGMD 9: Renal disorder; NCMLS 5: Membrane transport and intracellular motility
PURPOSE: We investigate radio-labeling and pharmacokinetics of a new AnnexinA5 variant (HYNIC-cys-AnxA5) and then assess its utility for the non-invasive detection of cell death in liver, spleen and prostate. METHODS: AnnexinA5 binds to phosphatidylserine expressed on the surface of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Contrary to other AnnexinA5 variants, the new cys-AnxA5 allows for site-specific conjugation of a hydrazinonicotinamide-maleimide moiety and subsequent radio-labeling with (99m)Tc at a position not involved in the AnxA5-phosphatidylserine interaction. Distribution of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 was studied in rats, both invasively and via SPECT/CT. Cycloheximide was used to induce cell death in liver and spleen, whereas apoptosis in the prostate was induced by castration. RESULTS: HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 was efficiently and reproducibly labeled with (99m)Tc. Blood clearance of radioactivity after iv-injection was adequately described by a two-compartment model, the renal cortex representing the main site of accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment resulted in increased accumulation of intravenous-injected (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 in liver and spleen over controls, which correlated well with TUNEL staining for cell death in corresponding tissue sections. However, the increase in TUNEL-positive prostate epithelial cells observed following castration was not paralleled by greater (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 accumulation. CONCLUSION: (99m)Tc-HYNIC-cys-AnxA5 appears a suitable tracer for assessment of cell death in liver and spleen, but not prostate.
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