Estimating glomerular filtration rate: Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas compared to renal inulin clearance.
SourceClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 4, 5, (2009), pp. 899-906
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
SubjectIGMD 9: Renal disorder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of renal function by estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is very important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas are the most commonly used estimations. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Estimated GFR values by each formula were compared with measured GFR (mGFR) by renal inulin clearance in 2208 European adults (46% women, 1.4% Caribbean blacks), with and without CKD, and mean mGFR 72.4 +/- 39.0 (range 2.2 to 177.2) ml/min/1.73 m(2). RESULTS: Overall, the CG and MDRD formulas showed bias (mean difference) -3.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (5.3%), P < 0.001, and -9.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (-6.4%), P < 0.001; precision (SD of bias) 21.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (43.1%) and 20.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (33.0%); limits of agreement (2 SD by Bland-Altman method) 39.5 to -46.5 (range 86.0) ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 30.2 to -49.8 (range 80.0) ml/min/1.73 m(2); and accuracy within +/-30% of mGFR 70.8 and 69.0%, respectively. Both formulas showed a trend for decreasing accuracy with lower mGFR levels. According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI)-CKD classification's five GFR groups, the CG and MDRD formulas properly assigned 61.6 and 57.1% of the entire population and had a range of positive predictive values 42.6 to 81.8% and 39.6 to 85.2% and of negative predictive values 81.7 to 96.6% and 76.4 to 97.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CG and MDRD formulas had some limitations for proper GFR estimation and K/DOQI-CKD classification by GFR levels alone.
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