Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.
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SourceOphthalmology, 116, 4, (2009), pp. 771-782
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectIGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; NCEBP 2: Evaluation of complex medical interventions; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease; IGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS: Ophthalmologic examination, including color vision testing, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, optical coherence tomography, full-field electroretinography (ERG), multifocal ERG, and electrooculography. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and subsequent analysis of the peripherin/RDS gene, as well as haplotype analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics, phenotypic range, clinical follow-up data, and FAF findings. RESULTS: The mean age at onset of visual loss was 46 years, with subsequent gradual deterioration in visual acuity. Ninety-eight patients carried a p.Arg142Trp mutation in peripherin/RDS, whereas 5 affected members of a CACD family carried a p.Arg172Gln peripherin/RDS mutation. A remarkable variation in disease severity was observed, and nonpenetrance was seen up to the age of 64 years, in up to 21% of mutation carriers. However, most macular lesions in mutation carriers displayed a typical stage of CACD. Substantial changes were seen on FAF imaging after a mean follow-up period of 11 months. Electrophysiologic data were consistent with a central cone dystrophy. The age at onset and phenotypic characteristics of CACD show considerable overlap with atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The great majority of p.Arg142Trp-carrying CACD patients originated from the southeast region of the Netherlands, and haplotype analysis strongly suggested a common founder mutation. CONCLUSIONS: When caused by a p.Arg142Trp mutation in the peripherin/RDS gene, CACD causes a central cone dystrophy phenotype. This mutation, which most likely originates from a common founder in most patients, is associated with a significant degree of nonpenetrance. In the elderly patient, CACD may be confused with AMD, especially in cases with decreased penetrance.
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