Pharmacokinetics and 48 week efficacy of low-dose lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected children.
until further notice
SourceJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64, 5, (2009), pp. 1080-1086
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
SubjectN4i 3: Poverty-related infectious diseases
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir is a common protease inhibitor (PI) used for second-line regimens in children. Several studies have shown higher plasma concentrations of antiretroviral agents in Thai adults than in Caucasians, suggesting that lower doses may be used. METHODS: An open label study in 24 HIV-infected children between the age of 2 and 18 years, naive to PIs, randomized to receive either the WHO-recommended dose of lopinavir/ritonavir or a low dose (70% of the standard dose) twice daily in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine. A 12 h pharmacokinetic study was done at 4-6 weeks after starting treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated at week 48. The clinical trial number of the study is NCT00887120. RESULTS: The medians [interquartile ranges (IQRs)] of age, body surface area, percentage CD4 and plasma HIV RNA were 9.5 years (7.0-12.3), 0.9 m(2) (0.8-1.1), 17% (11%-24%) and 4.6 log(10) copies/mL (4.1-4.9), respectively. The median (IQR) lopinavir dose was 279 mg/m(2)/dose (263-294) and 194 mg/m(2)/dose (176-206) in the standard and low-dose arms, respectively. Median (IQR) AUC(0-12) and C(trough) of lopinavir were 117.6 mg.h/L (74.0-128.5) and 4.9 mg/L (2.7-8.0) for the standard arm and 83.8 mg.h/L (56.0-112.9) and 3.4 mg/L (2.7-5.4) for the low-dose arm. One child in the low-dose arm had a lopinavir pre-dose level of <1.0 mg/L. At week 48, the median percentage CD4 was 22% (15%-28%) and 27% (21%-31%) in the standard and low-dose arms, respectively, while 50% and 83% of children had HIV RNA <50 copies/mL, respectively (P = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose lopinavir displayed adequate pharmacokinetic parameters and good efficacy as compared with standard-dose lopinavir in Thai children. A larger study to investigate the efficacy of low-dose lopinavir is warranted.
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