Receptor binding ligands to image infection.
SourceCurrent Pharmaceutical Design, 14, 31, (2008), pp. 3316-3325
Article / Letter to editor
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Current Pharmaceutical Design
SubjectN4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation; NCMLS 2: Immune Regulation; ONCOL 3: Translational research; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; UMCN 4.1: Microbial pathogenesis and host defense
The current gold standard for imaging infection is radiolabeled white blood cells. For reasons of safety, simplicity and cost, it would be desirable to have a receptor-specific ligand that could be used for imaging infection and that would allow a differential diagnosis between sterile and septic inflammatory processes. Ligands tested for this purpose include labeled peptides ((99m)Tc-labeled f-Met-Leu-Phe, (123)I-IL-1ra, (99m)Tc-IL-8, (99m)Tc-P483H, (99m)Tc-P1827DS, (99m)Tc-C5a-des-Arg, (99m)Tc-RP517, (11)In-DPC11870-11), human polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments, antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ceftizoxime, isoniazid, ethambutol, fluconazole, all labeled with (99m)Tc), antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages. Radiolabeled antibodies represent a valid alternative to labeled white blood cells under specific conditions and indications. Radiolabeled antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides are promising candidates for an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical. However, at present we still need to investigate many basic aspects to better understand the mechanisms of binding and accumulation of this class of radiopharmaceuticals to bacteria.
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