The Janus face of Bartonella quintana recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs): a review.
until further notice
SourceEuropean Cytokine Network, 19, 3, (2008), pp. 113-118
Article / Letter to editor
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European Cytokine Network
SubjectDCN 1: Perception and Action; N4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation; N4i 2: Invasive mycoses and compromised host; N4i 4: Auto-immunity, transplantation and immunotherapy; NCMLS 1: Immunity, infection and tissue repair; NCMLS 1: Infection and autoimmunity; UMCN 4.1: Microbial pathogenesis and host defense; UMCN 4.2: Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity
Bartonella quintana (B. quintana) is a facultative, intracellular bacterium, which causes trench fever, chronic bacteraemia and bacillary angiomatosis. Little is known about the recognition of B. quintana by the innate immune system. In this review, we address the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the recognition of B. quintana and the activation of the host defense. When experimental models using human mononuclear cells, transfected CHO cells, or TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice were used, differential effects of TLR2 and TLR4 have been observed. B. quintana micro-organisms stimulated cytokine production through TLR2-mediated signals, whereas no role for TLR4 in the recognition of this pathogen was observed. When single, water-phenol extraction was performed, B. quintana LPS, stimulated cytokine production in a TLR2-dependent manner. However, when double extraction was performed in order to generate highly purified LPS, B. quintana LPS entirely lost its capacity to stimulate cytokines, demonstrating that non-LPS components of B. quintana are responsible for the recognition through TLR2. Moreover, B. quintana LPS was shown to be a potent antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In conclusion, B. quintana is an inducer of cytokines through TLR2-, but not TLR4-, dependent mechanisms. This stimulation is induced by bacterial components other than lipopolysaccharide. B. quintana LPS is a naturally occurring antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In view of the role played by TLR4 in inflammation, B. quintana LPS may be useful as an anti-TLR4 agent with therapeutic potential in both infections and autoimmune inflammation.
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