Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in resource-limited settings.
SourceClinical Infectious Diseases, 47, 10, (2008), pp. 1339-1344
Article / Letter to editor
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
SubjectN4i 2: Invasive mycoses and compromised host; N4i 3: Poverty-related infectious diseases; NCEBP 13: Infectious diseases and international health; UMCN 4.1: Microbial pathogenesis and host defense
BACKGROUND: We developed a simple and inexpensive thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assay for semiquantitative detection of saliva concentrations of nevirapine in resource-limited settings. The method was validated in an African target population. METHODS: Paired plasma and saliva nevirapine concentrations were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); saliva concentrations of nevirapine were also assayed by TLC. The rate of false-positive results was the proportion of subtherapeutic nevirapine saliva and plasma concentrations determined by HPLC that were judged to be therapeutic in saliva specimens by TLC. The rate of false-negative results was the proportion of therapeutic nevirapine saliva and plasma concentrations determined by HPLC that were judged to be subtherapeutic in saliva specimens by TLC. The extent of agreement in TLC readings between 5 technicians and 2 batches of TLC sheets was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-five (9%) of 286 African adults had a subtherapeutic plasma nevirapine concentration. The median ratio of nevirapine concentrations in saliva to those in plasma was 0.51:1. The rate of false-positive results for TLC was 0% (0 of 23 specimens) when TLC results were compared with HPLC results for saliva specimens and 8% (2 of 25 specimens) when TLC results were compared with HPLC results for plasma specimens. The rate of false-negative results for TLC was 1% (3 of 263 specimens) when TLC results were compared with HPLC results for saliva specimens and 1% (3 of 261 specimens) when TLC results were compared with HPLC results for plasma specimens. The extent of agreement of TLC results was substantial for the 5 technicians (Fleiss's kappa = 0.77) and for the 2 batches of sheets (Cohen's kappa = 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: The TLC assay was found to be sensitive, specific, and robust in the detection of subtherapeutic nevirapine concentrations in saliva specimens obtained from African HIV-infected adults. It is an attractive alternative to HPLC for therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in resource-limited settings.
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