Foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with cerebral palsy: the impact of intellectual disability.
until further notice
SourceJournal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, Pt 1, (2008), pp. 68-78
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
iss. Pt 1
SubjectEBP 1: Determinants of Health and Disease; NCEBP 8: Psychological determinants of chronic illness; EBP 1: Determinants of Health and Disease
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and accompanying disabilities are prone to reading difficulties. The aim of the present study was to examine the foundations of phonological awareness in pre-school children with CP in comparison with a normally developing control group. Rhyme perception was regarded as an early indicator of phonological awareness, whereas non-verbal reasoning, speech ability, auditory perception, auditory short-term memory and vocabulary were regarded as foundation measures. METHODS: A number of tasks were administrated to examine group differences in rhyme perception and its foundation measures. Correlations between the tasks were analysed for both groups followed by multiple regression analyses wherein rhyme perception was predicted by its foundation measures. RESULTS: Children with CP scored below their normally developing peers on emergent phonological awareness and its foundation measures. Regarding the prediction of phonological awareness, non-verbal reasoning followed by pseudoword articulation, were found to predict phonological awareness, i.e. rhyme perception, in the group of children with CP. In the control group, auditory perception was a significant predictor of emergent phonological awareness. The CP group was further split up into two groups according to the children's non-verbal reasoning skills, i.e. general IQ. The below-average IQ group scored below the average IQ group on phonological awareness and on most foundation measures. In addition, the average IQ group of the children with CP scored lower than the control group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that general intelligence and speech ability (i.e. pseudoword articulation) can be seen as important facilitators of emergent phonological awareness in children with CP. These findings support the role of intelligence in the emergence of phonological awareness in children with CP. Children with CP with intellectual disabilities seem to have a disadvantage in acquiring phonological awareness, especially when their speech abilities are also impaired. However, general intelligence is not enough to predict phonological awareness as other foundation measures are also important for phonological awareness independent of general intelligence.
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