[Prevention of perioperative cardiac complications in non-cardiac surgery: an evidence-based guideline]
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 152, 48, (2008), pp. 2612-2616
Article / Letter to editor
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Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde
SubjectEBP 3: Effective Primary Care and Public Health
Approximately 2.5% of the patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery suffer from perioperative cardiac complications. These are associated with a mortality of 20.60%, a longer stay in hospital and higher costs. The risk factors for perioperative cardiac complications are: high-risk surgery, ischaemic heart disease, a history of congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and renal failure. Recently, the scope of medical management has shifted from assessing and treating underlying culprit coronary lesions toward coronary plaque stabilisation and prevention of myocardial oxygen supply demand mismatch. Currently, the prevention of cardiac problems consists of identification of the patients at risk, optimisation of the preoperatieve condition by modification of underlying risk factors, optimisation of the perioperative medication with adrenergic beta-antagonists, statins, and acetylsalicylic acid, adequate perioperative monitoring and measures to prevent myocardial ischaemia. These include adequate sedation and analgesia, adequate oxygenation, oxygen transport, and ventilation, and if necessary additional cardiac medication.
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