In vitro interactions between amphotericin B, itraconazole, and flucytosine against 21 clinical Aspergillus isolates determined by two drug interaction models.
SourceAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48, 6, (2004), pp. 2007-2013
Article / Letter to editor
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Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
SubjectUMCN 4.1: Microbial pathogenesis and host defense
Combination therapy of flucytosine (5FC) with other antifungal agents could be of use for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. However, interpretation of the results of in vitro interactions is problematic. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index is the most commonly used method, but it has several major drawbacks in characterizing antifungal drug interaction. Alternatively, a response surface approach using the concentration-effect relationship over the whole concentration range instead of just the MIC can be used. We determined the in vitro interactions between amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole, and 5FC against 21 Aspergillus isolates with a broth microdilution checkerboard method that employs the dye MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide]. FIC indices based on three different MIC endpoints (MIC-0, MIC-1, and MIC-2) and the interaction coefficient alpha were determined, the latter by estimation from the response surface approach described by Greco et al. (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharmacol. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995). The value obtained for the FIC index was found to be dependent on the MIC endpoint used and could be either synergistic, indifferent, or antagonistic. The response surface approach gave more consistent results. Of the three combinations tested, the AMB-5FC combination was the most potent in vitro against Aspergillus spp. We conclude that the use of the response surface approach for the interpretation of in vitro interaction studies of antifungals may be helpful in order to predict the nature and intensity of the drug interaction. However, the correlation of these results with clinical outcome remains difficult and needs to be further investigated.
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