Biased language use in stereotype maintenance: The role of encoding and goals
until further notice
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 4, (2005), pp. 504-515
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ BSI SCP
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
SubjectBehaviour Change and Well-being
In 4 studies, the authors investigated the relative impact of biased encoding of information and communication goals on biased language use. A category label (linguistic expectancy bias, Study 1) or a group label (linguistic intergroup bias, Study 2) was presented either before or after a story that participants were asked to communicate. Biased language use only emerged when participants learned about the group membership of the actor or the category label before hearing the story. However, communication goals had an effect on language use at the retrieval stage, independent of encoding (Studies 3 and 4). Although communication goal effects seemed to overwhelm encoding effects, encoding still influenced language use under externally imposed time pressure (Study 3) and self-imposed time constraints (Study 4). This research reaffirms the importance of both cognitive and communicative processes in stereotype maintenance and highlights the conditions under which they each operate.
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