In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of transgenic mouse models with altered high-energy phosphoryl transfer metabolism.
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SourceNMR in Biomedicine, 20, 4, (2007), pp. 448-467
Article / Letter to editor
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Cell Biology (UMC)
NMR in Biomedicine
SubjectCTR 1: Functional imaging; IGMD 8: Mitochondrial medicine; NCMLS 4: Energy and redox metabolism; ONCOL 3: Translational research; ONCOL 5: Aetiology, screening and detection; UMCN 1.1: Functional Imaging; UMCN 5.3: Cellular energy metabolism
Studies of transgenic mice provide powerful means to investigate the in vivo biological significance of gene products. Mice with an under- or overexpression of enzymes involved in high-energy phosphoryl transfer (approximately P) are particulary attractive for in vivo MR spectroscopy studies as the substrates of these enzymes are metabolites that are visible in MR spectra. This review provides a brief overview of the strategies used for generation and study of genetically altered mice and introduces the reader to some practical aspects of in vivo MRS studies on mice. The major part of the paper reviews results of in vivo MRS studies on transgenic mice with alterations in the expression of enzymes involved in approximately P metabolism, such as creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and guanidinoacetate methyl transferase. The particular metabolic consequences of these enzyme deficiencies in skeletal muscle, brain, heart and liver are addressed. Additionally, the use of approximately P systems as markers of gene expression by MRS, such as after viral transduction of genes, is described. Finally, a compilation of tissue levels of metabolites in skeletal muscle, heart and brain of wild-type and transgenic mice, as determined by in vivo MRS, is given. During the last decade, transgenic MRS studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the physiological role of phosphotransfer enzymes, and to the view that these enzymes together build a much larger metabolic energy network that is highly versatile and can dynamically adapt to intrinsic genotoxic and extrinsic physiological challenges.
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