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The cytocompatibility and early osteogenic characteristics of an injectable calcium phosphate cement.
SourceTissue Engineering, 13, 3, (2007), pp. 493-500
Article / Letter to editor
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Periodontology and Biomaterials
SubjectNCMLS 1: Immunity, infection and tissue repair; NCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology; UMCN 4.3: Tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery
In this study, the cytocompatibility and early osteogenic characteristics of rat bone marrow cells (RBMCs) on injectable calcium phosphate (CaP) cement (Calcibon) were investigated. In addition to unmodified CaP cement discs, 2 other treatments were given to the discs: preincubation in MilliQ and sintering at different temperatures. After primary culture, RBMCs were dropwise seeded on the discs and cultured for 12 days. The samples were evaluated in terms of cell viability, morphology (live and dead assays and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), cell proliferation (deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analyses), early cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity), and physicochemical analyses (x-ray diffraction (XRD)). The live and dead, DNA, and SEM results showed that Calcibon discs without any additional treatment were not supporting osteoblast-like cells in vitro. There were fewer cells, and cell layers were detached from the disc surface. Therefore, different preincubation periods and sintering temperatures were evaluated to improve the cytocompatibility of the CaP cement. Preincubating discs in MilliQ for periods of 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks resulted in the hydrolysis of alpha-tri calcium phosphate (TCP) into an apatite-like structure with some beta-TCP, as shown with XRD, but the material was not cytocompatible. Sintering the discs between 800 degrees C and 1100 degrees C resulted in conversion of alpha-TCP to beta-TCP with some hydroxyapatite and an increase in crystallinity. Eventually, the discs sintered at 1100 degrees C achieved better cell attachment, more-abundant cell proliferation, and earlier differentiation than other sintered (600 degrees C, 800 degrees C, and 1000 degrees C), preincubated, and unmodified specimens. On basis of our results, we conclude that in vivo results with CaP-based cements do not guarantee in vitro applicability. Furthermore, unmodified Calcibon is not cytocompatible in vitro, although preincubation of the material results in a more-favorable cell response, sintering of the material at 1100 degrees C results in the best osteogenic properties. In contrast to in vivo studies, the Calcibon CaP cement is not suitable as a scaffold for cell-based tissue-engineering strategies.
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