[Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models for inhaled anaesthetics]
until further notice
SourceAnaesthesist, 56, 6, (2007), pp. 538-556
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectDCN 1: Perception and Action; UMCN 3.3: Neurosensory disorders
Pharmacokinetic models can be differentiated into two groups: physiological-based models and empirical models. Traditionally the pharmacokinetics of volatile anaesthetics are described using physiological-based models together with the respective tissue-blood distribution coefficients. The compartments of the empirical model have no anatomical equivalents and are merely the product of the mathematical procedure for parameter estimation. The end expiratory concentration of volatile anaesthetics is approximately equal to the arterial concentration and, therefore, the description of the transition between plasma and effect site for volatile anaesthetics plays a central role. The most important parameter here is the k(e0) value which is a time constant and describes the time delay for the transition from the central compartment to the calculated effect compartment. The k(e0) values for sevoflurane and isoflurane are the same but the concentration balance between the end-tidal concentration and the effect compartment occurs twice as quickly with desflurane. In clinical practice volatile anaesthetics are normally combined with N(2)O and/or opioids. This results in an additive interaction between volatile anaesthetics and N(2)O but a synergistic interaction of volatile anaesthetics with opioids. However, there are relatively few investigations on the interactions between the clinically widely used combination of volatile anaesthetics, N(2)O and opioids.
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