The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
until further notice
SourceFish and Shellfish Immunology, 21, 3, (2006), pp. 261-271
Article / Letter to editor
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Fish and Shellfish Immunology
SubjectUMCN 5.4: Renal disorders
The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, Yeast DNA (containing unmethylated CpG motifs) or high-M alginate (an extract of algae containing poly-mannuronic acid) were used. The effect of this treatment was studied on the kinetics of B cells in head kidney and peripheral blood leucocytes using flow cytometry, on the total plasma IgM level using ELISA, on cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the intestine, and acute phase protein expression in the liver, using real time quantitative PCR, and on exposure to Vibrio anguillarum. Oral administration of immuno-stimulants from 6 wpf resulted in decreased WCI12(+) (B) cell percentages in PBL (only after administration of LPS) and head kidney (all test groups), and a decreased total IgM level in plasma, suggesting that suppressive effects are strongly indicative of oral or juvenile tolerance. After administration from 2 wpf, the effects on WCI12(+) (B) cell percentages were less pronounced: the group fed with Yeast DNA showed higher percentages compared to the control group at 6 wpf, but lower percentages at 8 wpf. No changes were observed in the cytokine or iNOS expression levels in the intestine or acute phase protein expression in the liver. A challenge with V. anguillarum resulted in an initially higher cumulative mortality in the group fed with LPS, but lower mortality in the groups fed with Yeast DNA or high-M alginate compared to the control group, providing a provisional warning especially for the use of pathogen-derived immuno-stimulants, such as A. salmonicida LPS, in larval and juvenile fish.
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