Calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of Xenopus laevis and its participation in ascending and descending projections.
until further notice
SourceBrain Research Bulletin, 66, 4-6, (2005), pp. 550-554
Article / Letter to editor
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Brain Research Bulletin
SubjectDCN 1: Perception and Action; DCN 2: Functional Neurogenomics; DCN 3: Neuroinformatics; UMCN 3.1: Neuromuscular development and genetic disorders
Immunohistochemistry for calbindin-D28k (CB) revealed that the spinal cord of Xenopus laevis possess a large number of CB-containing neurons widely distributed in both the dorsal and ventral horns, including areas which possess long ascending projections to supraspinal structures. In addition, the presence of CB-immunoreactive axons in the spinal funiculi suggested that descending projections containing this calcium binding protein may originate in different brainstem nuclei. Apart from mapping CB-containing elements in the spinal cord, a double labeling approach was used that combined the retrograde transport of dextran amines with CB immunohistochemistry. Thus, dextran amine injections into the lateral reticular region of the rhombencephalon, the parabrachial region, the mesencephalon and the dorsal thalamus revealed many retrogradely labeled cells in the spinal cord, a few number of which were double labeled for CB and found in the superficial dorsal horn and in the ventral medial region of the ventral horn. Their axons passed mainly via the lateral funiculus. Tracer application into the cervical spinal cord, combined with CB immunohistochemistry, resulted in retrogradely labeled cells throughout the brain, five groups of which showed CB immunoreactivity: (1) the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, (2) the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, (3) the raphe nucleus, (4) the middle reticular nucleus and (5) the inferior reticular nucleus. The presence of CB in spinal pathways suggests that CB may play a role in controlling spinal cells, mainly subserving visceroceptive and nociceptive information to supraspinal levels, and might also modulate reticulospinal pathways.
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