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SourceHuman Molecular Genetics, 14, review issue 2, (2005), pp. 215-23
Article / Letter to editor
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Human Molecular Genetics
iss. review issue 2
SubjectIGMD 3: Genomic disorders and inherited multi-system disorders; NCMLS 6: Genetics and epigenetic pathways of disease; ONCOL 1: Hereditary cancer and cancer-related syndromes; ONCOL 3: Translational research; UMCN 1.2: Molecular diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring
Small, submicroscopic, genomic deletions and duplications (1 kb to 10 Mb) constitute up to 15% of all mutations underlying human monogenic diseases. Novel genomic technologies such as microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) allow the mapping of genomic copy number alterations at this submicroscopic level, thereby directly linking disease phenotypes to gene dosage alterations. At present, the entire human genome can be scanned for deletions and duplications at over 30,000 loci simultaneously by array CGH ( approximately 100 kb resolution), thus entailing an attractive gene discovery approach for monogenic conditions, in particular those that are associated with reproductive lethality. Here, we review the present and future potential of microarray-based mapping of genes underlying monogenic diseases and discuss our own experience with the identification of the gene for CHARGE syndrome. We expect that, ultimately, genomic copy number scanning of all 250,000 exons in the human genome will enable immediate disease gene discovery in cases exhibiting single exon duplications and/or deletions.
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