Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression.
until further notice
SourceOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 13, 5, (2005), pp. 426-438
Article / Letter to editor
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Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
SubjectN4i 1: Pathogenesis and modulation of inflammation; N4i 4: Auto-immunity, transplantation and immunotherapy; NCMLS 1: Infection and autoimmunity; NCMLS 3: Tissue engineering and pathology; UMCN 4.2: Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases. METHODS: The H4 chondrocyte cell line was validated by comparing metalloproteinase expression profile with intact murine cartilage by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Genome-wide gene expression in the H4 cells in response to IL-1 and TGF-beta, alone and in combination, was analyzed by using oligonucleotide arrays negotiating approximately 12,000 genes. RESULTS: The response of cartilage and the H4 cell line to IL-1 and TGF-beta was comparable. Oligonucleotide array analysis demonstrated a mutual but asymmetrical antagonism as the dominant mode of interaction between IL-1 and TGF-beta. Cluster analysis revealed a remarkable selectivity in the mode of action exerted by TGF-beta on IL-1 regulated genes: antagonistic on pro-inflammatory genes whereas additive on growth regulators such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). While the former cluster underlined the protective effect of TGF-beta, the latter underscored the adverse effect of TGF-beta. We further identified potentially novel classes of target genes under control of TGF-beta such as ras family, histones, proteasome components, and ubiquitin family, highlighting the importance of such genes in TGF signaling besides the well-characterized SMAD pathway. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a cluster of genes as potential targets mediating the adverse effect of TGF-beta such as fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of ras GTPase and ubiquitin/proteasome pathways is likely to be a novel mechanism mediating the effect of TGF-beta and its interaction with IL-1. These down-stream genes and pathways can be targets in future therapy.
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