Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor subtype- and cell-type-specific activation of genomic target genes upon adenoviral transgene delivery
SourceMolecular and Cellular Biology, 26, 15, (2006), pp. 5698-5714
Article / Letter to editor
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Molecular and Cellular Biology
Investigations of the molecular events involved in activation of genomic target genes by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been hampered by the inability to establish a clean on/off state of the receptor in living cells. Here we show that the combination of adenoviral delivery and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is ideal for dissecting these mechanisms. Adenoviral delivery of PPARs leads to a rapid and synchronous expression of the PPAR subtypes, establishment of transcriptional active complexes at genomic loci, and immediate activation of even silent target genes. We demonstrate that PPARgamma2 possesses considerable ligand-dependent as well as independent transactivation potential and that agonists increase the occupancy of PPARgamma2/retinoid X receptor at PPAR response elements. Intriguingly, by direct comparison of the PPARs (alpha, gamma, and beta/delta), we show that the subtypes have very different abilities to gain access to target sites and that in general the genomic occupancy correlates with the ability to activate the corresponding target gene. In addition, the specificity and potency of activation by PPAR subtypes are highly dependent on the cell type. Thus, PPAR subtype-specific activation of genomic target genes involves an intricate interplay between the properties of the subtype- and cell-type-specific settings at the individual target loci.
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