Growth of Dust as the Initial Step Toward Planet Formation
Tucson : University of Arizona Press
InProtostars and Planets V, pp. 783-800
Article in monograph or in proceedings
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Protostars and Planets V
SubjectAstronomy; Research Programm of Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics
We discuss the results of laboratory measurements and theoretical models concerning the aggregation of dust in protoplanetary disks as the initial step toward planet formation. Small particles easily stick when they collide and form aggregates with an open, often fractal structure, depending on the growth process. Larger particles are still expected to grow at collision velocities of about 1 m/s. Experiments also show that, after an intermezzo of destructive velocities, high collision velocities above 10 m/s on porous materials again lead to net growth of the target. Considerations of dust-gas interactions show that collision velocities for particles not too different in surface-to-mass ratio remain limited up to sizes of about 1 m, and growth seems to be guaranteed to reach these sizes quickly and easily. For meter sizes, coupling to nebula turbulence makes destructive processes more likely. Global aggregation models show that in a turbulent nebula, small particles are swept up too fast to be consistent with observations of disks. An extended phase may therefore exist in the nebula during which the small particle component is kept alive through collisions driven by turbulence, which frustrates growth to planetesimals until conditions are more favorable for one or more reasons.
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