Relationships Between Systemic Inflammation, Intestinal Damage and Postoperative Organ Dysfunction in Adults Undergoing Low-Risk Cardiac Surgery.
SourceHeart Lung and Circulation, 32, 3, (2023), pp. 395-404
Article / Letter to editor
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Heart Lung and Circulation
SubjectAll institutes and research themes of the Radboud University Medical Center; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health Anesthesiology; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health Intensive Care
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of patients who undergo cardiac surgery develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Extracorporeal circulation and intestinal injury may play a role in this inflammatory response, although their relative contributions remain elusive. Moreover, it is largely unknown to what extent these factors contribute to cardiac surgery-induced postoperative organ dysfunction. METHOD: In this secondary analysis, we measured circulating levels of the intestinal damage marker intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) and of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1RA, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β in 180 patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. The average Z-score of levels of the different cytokines was used as an integral measure of the cytokine response. Relationships between duration of extracorporeal circulation, extent of intestinal injury, inflammation, and postoperative organ dysfunction were explored. RESULTS: Plasma I-FABP levels increased during surgery, with peak levels observed at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Except for TNF-α, the levels of all cytokines increased during surgery, with peak levels observed either 2 (MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β), 4 (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA) or 6 (IL-10) hours after the end of CPB. While the duration of CPB significantly correlated with cytokine Z-score (r=0.544, p<0.05), no relationship with I-FABP levels was found. Furthermore, no significant correlations between I-FABP and cytokine levels were observed. The duration of CPB correlated with a deterioration in postoperative kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) and troponin levels. Cytokine Z-score was associated with postoperative troponin levels, fluid administration, inotropic score, pulmonary alveolar-arterial gradient on the first postoperative morning, and deterioration of kidney function (eGFR). I-FABP levels did not correlate with any of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or renal parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery, the duration of CPB represents an important determinant of the systemic cytokine response, whereas both the CPB duration and the systemic inflammatory response contribute to subsequent organ dysfunction. Intestinal damage does not appear to play a relevant role in the postoperative inflammatory response and development of postoperative organ dysfunction in these patients.
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