Discrimination of black and Muslim minority groups in Western societies: Evidence from a meta-analysis of field experiments
Number of pages
SourceInternational Migration Review, 56, 3, (2022), pp. 843-880
Article / Letter to editor
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International Migration Review
SubjectInequality, cohesion and modernization; Ongelijkheid, cohesie en modernisering
This article examines discrimination against black and Muslim minority groups in 20 Western labor markets. We analyze the outcomes of 94 field experiments, conducted between 1973 and 2016 and representing ∼240,000 fictitious job applications. Using meta-analysis, we find that black minority groups are more strongly discriminated against than non-black minority groups. The degree of discrimination of black minority groups varies cross-nationally, whereas Muslim minority groups are equally discriminated across national contexts. Unexpectedly, discrimination against black minority groups in the United States is mostly lower than in European countries. These findings suggest that racial–ethnic discrimination in hiring can be better understood by taking a multigroup and cross-country perspective.
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- Faculty of Social Sciences 
- Open Access publications 
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