Cognitive phenotype and psychopathology in Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders through various Ras/MAPK pathway associated gene variants
Number of pages
SourceJournal of Clinical Medicine, 11, 16, (2022), article 4735
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ DCC NRP
Journal of Clinical Medicine
SubjectNeuropsychology and rehabilitation psychology; Radboudumc 18: Healthcare improvement science RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Neuro- en revalidatiepsychologie
Cognitive difficulties are argued to be common in patients with Noonan syndrome spectrum disorders (NSSDs), but findings are based on studies in which patients with variants in PTPN11 (prevalence ~50%) were overrepresented. The current study, using a structured clinical approach, describes the cognitive phenotype and psychopathology of 100 patients (aged 6 to 61 years) with nine different gene variants in the Ras/MAPK pathway underlying NSSDs (PTPN11n = 61, PTPN11 Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines n = 3, SOS1n = 14, KRASn = 7, LZTR1n = 5, RAF1n = 4, SHOC2n = 2, CBLn = 2, SOS2n = 2). After weighted assessment and bootstrapping of the results of individual neuropsychological assessments and measures of psychopathology, cognitive performances in most variant groups were within the ranges of expectation. IQs were significantly lower in patients with variants in PTPN11, KRAS, RAF1, and SHOC2, but no specific cognitive impairments were found. The performances of younger participants (<16 years of age) did not differ from those of adults. Alexithymia and internalizing problems were more frequent in patients with variants in PTPN11 and SOS1, while PTPN11 patients also showed higher levels of externalizing problems. These results stress the need to take intelligence into account when interpreting lower cognitive performances in individual neuropsychological assessments, which is crucial for an adequate understanding and guidance of patients with NSSDs.
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