Maturation of GFR in Term-Born Neonates: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis
SourceJournal of the American Society of Nephrology, 33, 7, (2022), pp. 1277-1292
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
BACKGROUND: The evidence from individual studies to support the maturational pattern of GFR in healthy, term-born neonates is inconclusive. We performed an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of reported measured GFR (mGFR) data, aiming to establish neonatal GFR reference values. Furthermore, we aimed to optimize neonatal creatinine-based GFR estimations. METHODS: We identified studies reporting mGFR measured by exogenous markers or creatinine clearance (CrCL) in healthy, term-born neonates. The relationship between postnatal age and clearance was investigated using cubic splines with generalized additive linear mixed models. From our reference values, we estimated an updated coefficient for the Schwartz equation (eGFR [ml/min per 1.73 m(2)]=(k×height [cm])/serum creatinine [mg/dl]). RESULTS: Forty-eight out of 1521 screened articles reported mGFR in healthy, term-born neonates, and 978 mGFR values from 881 neonates were analyzed. IPD were available for 367 neonates, and the other 514 neonates were represented by 41 aggregated data points as means/medians per group. GFR doubled in the first 5 days after birth, from 19.6 (95% CI, 14.7 to 24.6) to 40.6 (95% CI, 36.7 to 44.5) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and then increased more gradually to 59.4 (95% CI, 45.9 to 72.9) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) by 4 weeks of age. A coefficient of 0.31 to estimate GFR best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS: These reference values for healthy, term-born neonates show a biphasic increase in GFR, with the largest increase between days 1 and 5. Together with the re-examined Schwartz equation, this can help identify altered GFR in term-born neonates. To enable widespread implementation of our proposed eGFR equation, validation in a large cohort of neonates is required. PURPOSE: The number of patients ≥ 80 years admitted into critical care is increasing. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) added another challenge for clinical decisions for both admission and limitation of life-sustaining treatments (LLST). We aimed to compare the characteristics and mortality of very old critically ill patients with or without COVID-19 with a focus on LLST. METHODS: Patients 80 years or older with acute respiratory failure were recruited from the VIP2 and COVIP studies. Baseline patient characteristics, interventions in intensive care unit (ICU) and outcomes (30-day survival) were recorded. COVID patients were matched to non-COVID patients based on the following factors: age (± 2 years), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (± 2 points), clinical frailty scale (± 1 point), gender and region on a 1:2 ratio. Specific ICU procedures and LLST were compared between the cohorts by means of cumulative incidence curves taking into account the competing risk of discharge and death. RESULTS: 693 COVID patients were compared to 1393 non-COVID patients. COVID patients were younger, less frail, less severely ill with lower SOFA score, but were treated more often with invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) and had a lower 30-day survival. 404 COVID patients could be matched to 666 non-COVID patients. For COVID patients, withholding and withdrawing of LST were more frequent than for non-COVID and the 30-day survival was almost half compared to non-COVID patients. CONCLUSION: Very old COVID patients have a different trajectory than non-COVID patients. Whether this finding is due to a decision policy with more active treatment limitation or to an inherent higher risk of death due to COVID-19 is unclear.
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