Quantitative classification and radiomics of [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT in indeterminate thyroid nodules
SourceEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 49, 7, (2022), pp. 2174-2188
Article / Letter to editor
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European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
SubjectRadboudumc 12: Sensory disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience; Radboudumc 17: Women's cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 19: Nanomedicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether quantitative [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT assessment, including radiomic analysis of [(18)F]FDG-positive thyroid nodules, improved the preoperative differentiation of indeterminate thyroid nodules of non-Hurthle cell and Hurthle cell cytology. METHODS: Prospectively included patients with a Bethesda III or IV thyroid nodule underwent [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT imaging. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed for standardised uptake values (SUV) and SUV-ratios, including assessment of SUV cut-offs at which a malignant/borderline neoplasm was reliably ruled out (>/= 95% sensitivity). [(18)F]FDG-positive scans were included in radiomic analysis. After segmentation at 50% of SUVpeak, 107 radiomic features were extracted from [(18)F]FDG-PET and low-dose CT images. Elastic net regression classifiers were trained in a 20-times repeated random split. Dimensionality reduction was incorporated into the splits. Predictive performance of radiomics was presented as mean area under the ROC curve (AUC) across the test sets. RESULTS: Of 123 included patients, 84 (68%) index nodules were visually [(18)F]FDG-positive. The malignant/borderline rate was 27% (33/123). SUV-metrices showed AUCs ranging from 0.705 (95% CI, 0.601-0.810) to 0.729 (0.633-0.824), 0.708 (0.580-0.835) to 0.757 (0.650-0.864), and 0.533 (0.320-0.747) to 0.700 (0.502-0.898) in all (n = 123), non-Hurthle (n = 94), and Hurthle cell (n = 29) nodules, respectively. At SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmax-ratio, and SUVpeak-ratio cut-offs of 2.1 g/mL, 1.6 g/mL, 1.2, and 0.9, respectively, sensitivity of [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT was 95.8% (95% CI, 78.9-99.9%) in non-Hurthle cell nodules. In Hurthle cell nodules, cut-offs of 5.2 g/mL, 4.7 g/mL, 3.4, and 2.8, respectively, resulted in 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 66.4-100%). Radiomic analysis of 84 (68%) [(18)F]FDG-positive nodules showed a mean test set AUC of 0.445 (95% CI, 0.290-0.600) for the PET model. CONCLUSION: Quantitative [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT assessment ruled out malignancy in indeterminate thyroid nodules. Distinctive, higher SUV cut-offs should be applied in Hurthle cell nodules to optimize rule-out ability. Radiomic analysis did not contribute to the additional differentiation of [(18)F]FDG-positive nodules. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02208544 (5 August 2014), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02208544 .
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