(19)F MRI Imaging Strategies to Reduce Isoflurane Artifacts in In Vivo Images
SourceMolecular Imaging and Biology, 24, 1, (2022), pp. 71-81
Article / Letter to editor
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Molecular Imaging and Biology
SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 19: Nanomedicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 2: Cancer development and immune defence RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
PURPOSE: Isoflurane (ISO) is the most commonly used preclinical inhalation anesthetic. This is a problem in (19)F MRI of fluorine contrast agents, as ISO signals cause artifacts that interfere with unambiguous image interpretation and quantification; the two most attractive properties of heteronuclear MRI. We aimed to avoid these artifacts using MRI strategies that can be applied by any pre-clinical researcher. PROCEDURES: Three strategies to avoid ISO chemical shift displacement artifacts (CSDA) in (19)F MRI are described and demonstrated with measurements of (19)F-containing agents in phantoms and in vivo (n = 3 for all strategies). The success of these strategies is compared to a standard Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) sequence, with phantom and in vivo validation. ISO artifacts can successfully be avoided by (1) shifting them outside the region of interest using a narrow signal acquisition bandwidth, (2) suppression of ISO by planning a frequency-selective suppression pulse before signal acquisition or by (3) preventing ISO excitation with a 3D sequence with a narrow excitation bandwidth. RESULTS: All three strategies result in complete ISO signal avoidance (p < 0.0001 for all methods). Using a narrow acquisition bandwidth can result in loss of signal to noise ratio and distortion of the image, and a frequency-selective suppression pulse can be incomplete when B1-inhomogeneities are present. Preventing ISO excitation with a narrow excitation pulse in a 3D sequence yields the most robust results (relative SNR 151 +/- 28% compared to 2D multislice methods, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: We optimized three easily implementable methods to avoid ISO signal artifacts and validated their performance in phantoms and in vivo. We make recommendation on the parameters that pre-clinical studies should report in their method section to make the used approach insightful.
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