Cortical correlates of gait compensation strategies in Parkinson disease
SourceAnnals of Neurology, 91, 3, (2022), pp. 329-341
Article / Letter to editor
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Annals of Neurology
SubjectRadboudumc 3: Disorders of movement DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
OBJECTIVE: Gait impairment in persons with Parkinson disease is common and debilitating. Compensation strategies (eg, external cues) are an essential part of rehabilitation, but their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we explored the cortical correlates of 3 categories of strategies: external cueing, internal cueing, and action observation. METHODS: Eighteen participants with Parkinson disease and gait impairment were included. We recorded 126-channel EEG during both stance and gait on a treadmill under 4 conditions: (1) uncued, (2) external cueing (listening to a metronome), (3) internal cueing (silent rhythmic counting), and (4) action observation (observing another person walking). To control for the effects of sensory processing of the cues, we computed relative power changes as the difference in power spectral density between walking and standing for each condition. RESULTS: Relative to uncued gait, the use of all 3 compensation strategies induced a decrease of beta band activity in sensorimotor areas, indicative of increased cortical activation. Parieto-occipital alpha band activity decreased with external and internal cueing, and increased with action observation. Only internal cueing induced a change in frontal cortical activation, showing a decrease of beta band activity compared to uncued gait. INTERPRETATION: The application of compensation strategies resulted in changed cortical activity compared to uncued gait, which could not be solely attributed to sensory processing of the cueing modality. Our findings suggest there are multiple routes to control gait, and different compensation strategies seem to rely on different cortical mechanisms to achieve enhanced central motor activation in persons with Parkinson disease. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:329-341.
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