Diagnostic DNA Methylation Biomarkers for Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review
SourceEuropean Urology Oncology, 4, 2, (2021), pp. 215-226
Article / Letter to editor
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European Urology Oncology
SubjectRadboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
CONTEXT: The 5-yr survival of early-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is approximately 93%, but once metastasised, the 5-yr survival plummets to 12%, indicating that early RCC detection is crucial to improvement in survival. DNA methylation biomarkers have been suggested to be of potential diagnostic value; however, their current state of clinical translation is unclear and a comprehensive overview is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and summarise all literature regarding diagnostic DNA methylation biomarkers for RCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review of PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Google Scholar up to January 2019, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA) guidelines. Included studies were scored according to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) criteria. Forest plots were generated to summarise diagnostic performance of all biomarkers. Level of evidence (LoE) and potential risk of bias were determined for all included studies. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After selection, 19 articles reporting on 44 diagnostic DNA methylation biomarkers and 11 multimarker panels were included; however, only 15 biomarkers were independently validated. STARD scores varied from 4 to 13 out of 23 points, with a median of 10 points. Large variation in subgroups, methods, and primer locations was observed. None of the reported biomarkers exceeded LoE III, and the majority of studies reported inadequately. CONCLUSIONS: None of the reported biomarkers exceeded LoE III, indicating their limited clinical utility. Moreover, study reproducibility and further development of these RCC biomarkers are greatly hampered by inadequate reporting. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we reviewed whether specific biomarkers could be used to diagnose the most common form of kidney cancer. We conclude that due to limited evidence and reporting inconsistencies, none of these biomarkers can be used in clinical practice, and further development towards clinical use is hindered.
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