Safety of therapy with and withdrawal from denosumab in fibrous dysplasia and McCune-Albright syndrome: an observational study
SourceJournal of Bone and Mineral Research, 36, 9, (2021), pp. 1729-1738
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
SubjectRadboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
Denosumab (Dmab) treatment can benefit patients with fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome (FD/MAS) by suppressing the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated increased bone resorption. However, limited data of two pediatric cases indicate that a rebound phenomenon may occur after withdrawal. Therefore we studied the safety of Dmab discontinuation in FD/MAS. Thirty-seven patients using Dmab, mostly after unsuccessful bisphosphonate (BP) treatment, were included. Health records were screened for pain scores, side effects, and bone turnover markers (BTMs) (calcium, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide [P1NP], and β-crosslaps [B-CTX, also termed β-C-terminal telopeptide]) during treatment, and for BTMs and clinical rebound effects after withdrawal. BTM levels after withdrawal were compared to pretreatment values. Data were calculated as median (interquartile range [IQR]). BTMs normalized in two-thirds of patients and pain scores decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.002). One patient (2.7%) developed osteonecrosis of the jaw. Sixteen patients discontinued Dmab treatment after a median of 1.6 years (IQR 1.0 years) because of insufficient effect on pain (n = 10, 63%), side effects (n = 4, 25%), or other reasons (n = 4, 25%). Follow-up posttreatment was 3.2 (2.8) years, wherein no fractures, pain flares, or lesion progression occurred. Calcium remained normal in all but one patient, who had a mild asymptomatic hypercalcemia (2.73 mmol/L) 5 months after discontinuation. ALP passed pretreatment levels in five of 11 patients (46%), increased most after 6 months by 18 (43) U/L, and returned to baseline levels thereafter. P1NP exceeded pretreatment levels in four of nine patients (44%), CTX in eight of nine patients (89%). P1NP rose most after 3 months and stabilized thereafter. CTX showed the highest relative elevation. Patients with high pretreatment levels responding well to Dmab seemed to have the highest rebound. These results suggest beneficial effects of Dmab on pain and BTMs, and show a biochemical but asymptomatic rebound phenomenon after withdrawal in adults with FD/MAS, mainly in case of high pretreatment levels, good response, and multiple injections. Further studies on the safety of Dmab and withdrawal are needed and ongoing. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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