oxLDL-Induced Trained Immunity Is Dependent on Mitochondrial Metabolic Reprogramming
SourceImmunometabolism, 3, 3, (2021), article e210025
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 15: Urological cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 2: Cancer development and immune defence RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 4: lnfectious Diseases and Global Health RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Following brief exposure to endogenous atherogenic particles, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), monocytes/macrophages can adopt a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is called trained immunity. This mechanism might contribute to the chronic low-grade inflammation that characterizes atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to elucidate immunometabolic pathways that drive oxLDL-induced trained immunity. Primary isolated human monocytes were exposed to oxLDL for 24 h, and after five days stimulated with LPS to measure the cytokine production capacity. RNA-sequencing revealed broad increases in genes enriched in mitochondrial pathways after 24 h of oxLDL exposure. Further omics profiling of oxLDL-trained macrophages via intracellular metabolomics showed an enrichment for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites. Single cell analysis revealed that oxLDL-trained macrophages contain larger mitochondria, potentially likely linked to increased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity. Co-incubation with pharmacological blockers of OXPHOS inhibited oxLDL-induced trained immunity. The relevance of OXPHOS was confirmed in a cohort of 243 healthy subjects showing that genetic variation in genes coding for enzymes relevant to OXPHOS correlated with the capacity of monocytes to be trained with oxLDL. Interestingly, OXPHOS appears to play an important role in the increased cytokine hyperresponsiveness by oxLDL-trained macrophages. The TCA-cycle can also be fuelled by glutamine and free fatty acids, and pharmacological blockade of these pathways could prevent oxLDL-induced trained immunity. This study demonstrates that the mitochondria of oxLDL-trained macrophages undergo changes to their function and form with OXPHOS being an important mechanism for trained immunity, which could unveil novel pharmacological targets to prevent atherogenesis.
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