MCM complex members MCM3 and MCM7 are associated with a phenotypic spectrum from Meier-Gorlin syndrome to lipodystrophy and adrenal insufficiency
SourceEuropean Journal of Human Genetics, 29, 7, (2021), pp. 1110-1120
Article / Letter to editor
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European Journal of Human Genetics
SubjectRadboudumc 7: Neurodevelopmental disorders DCMN: Donders Center for Medical Neuroscience
The MCM2-7 helicase is a heterohexameric complex with essential roles as part of both the pre-replication and pre-initiation complexes in the early stages of DNA replication. Meier-Gorlin syndrome, a rare primordial dwarfism, is strongly associated with disruption to the pre-replication complex, including a single case described with variants in MCM5. Conversely, a biallelic pathogenic variant in MCM4 underlies immune deficiency with growth retardation, features also seen in individuals with pathogenic variants in other pre-initiation complex encoding genes such as GINS1, MCM10, and POLE. Through exome and chromium genome sequencing, supported by functional studies, we identify biallelic pathogenic variants in MCM7 and a strong candidate biallelic pathogenic variant in MCM3. We confirm variants in MCM7 are deleterious and through interfering with MCM complex formation, impact efficiency of S phase progression. The associated phenotypes are striking; one patient has typical Meier-Gorlin syndrome, whereas the second case has a multi-system disorder with neonatal progeroid appearance, lipodystrophy and adrenal insufficiency. We provide further insight into the developmental complexity of disrupted MCM function, highlighted by two patients with a similar variant profile in MCM7 but disparate clinical features. Our results build on other genetic findings linked to disruption of the pre-replication and pre-initiation complexes, and the replisome, and expand the complex clinical genetics landscape emerging due to disruption of DNA replication.
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