Eight-week exercise training in humans with obesity: Marked improvements in insulin sensitivity and modest changes in gut microbiome
SourceObesity, vol. 29, 10, (2021), pp. 1615-1624
Article / Letter to editor
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vol. vol. 29
SubjectRadboudumc 16: Vascular damage RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with impaired gut microbiota diversity, which has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to examine the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention on insulin sensitivity, visceral adiposity, and gut microbiota diversity and composition in participants with obesity. METHODS: Fourteen participants (mean [SD], age 51  years; BMI 34.9 [4.9] kg/m(2) ) performed an 8-week exercise intervention (2 to 4 times/week on 65% to 85% of heart rate reserve). Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulemic euglycemic clamp), cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake), visceral adiposity (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Insulin sensitivity showed a significant increase (pre: 3.8 [1.9] mg/min/kg; post: 4.5 [1.7] mg/min/kg; p = 0.007) after training, whereas visceral adiposity decreased (pre: 959  cm(3) ; post: 897  cm(3) ; p = 0.02). No change in gut microbiota α- or β-diversity was found. At the genus level, the abundance of Ruminococcus gauvreauii (p = 0.02); Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group (p = 0.04), and Anaerostipes (p = 0.04) significantly increased after exercise training. Significant positive correlations were present for M-value (R. gauvreauii) and VO(2) max (R. gauvreauii and Anaerostipes). CONCLUSIONS: Eight-week exercise training in humans with obesity leads to marked improvements in insulin sensitivity and body composition and is accompanied by modest changes in 3 gut microbiome genera, all belonging to the Firmicutes phylum.
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