The Redox Modulating Sonlicromanol Active Metabolite KH176m and the Antioxidant MPG Protect Against Short-Duration Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
SourceCardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 35, 4, (2021), pp. 745-758
Article / Letter to editor
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Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
SubjectRadboudumc 6: Metabolic Disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
PURPOSE: Sonlicromanol is a phase IIB clinical stage compound developed for treatment of mitochondrial diseases. Its active component, KH176m, functions as an antioxidant, directly scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and redox activator, boosting the peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin system. Here, we examined KH176m's potential to protect against acute cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), compare it with the classic antioxidant N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG), and determine whether protection depends on duration (severity) of ischemia. METHODS: Isolated C56Bl/6N mouse hearts were Langendorff-perfused and subjected to short (20 min) or long (30 min) ischemia, followed by reperfusion. During perfusion, hearts were treated with saline, 10 μM KH176m, or 1 mM MPG. Cardiac function, cell death (necrosis), and mitochondrial damage (cytochrome c (CytC) release) were evaluated. In additional series, the effect of KH176m treatment on the irreversible oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), formed during ischemia only, was determined at 30-min reperfusion. RESULTS: During baseline conditions, both drugs reduced cardiac performance, with opposing effects on vascular resistance (increased with KH176m, decreased with MPG). For short ischemia, KH176m robustly reduced all cell death parameters: LDH release (0.2 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.5 U/min/GWW), infarct size (15 ± 8 vs 31 ± 20%), and CytC release (168.0 ± 151.9 vs 790.8 ± 453.6 ng/min/GWW). Protection by KH176m was associated with decreased cardiac 4-HNE. MPG only reduced CytC release. Following long ischemia, IRI was doubled, and KH176m and MPG now only reduced LDH release. The reduced protection against long ischemia was associated with the inability to reduce cardiac 4-HNE. CONCLUSION: Protection against cardiac IRI by the antioxidant KH176m is critically dependent on duration of ischemia. The data suggest that with longer ischemia, the capacity of KH176m to reduce cardiac oxidative stress is rate-limiting, irreversible ischemic oxidative damage maximally accumulates, and antioxidant protection is strongly diminished.
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