Animal experimental research assessing urogynecologic surgical mesh implants: Outcome measures describing the host response, a systematic review and meta-analysis
SourceNeurourology and Urodynamics, 40, 5, (2021), pp. 1107-1119
Article / Letter to editor
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Neurourology and Urodynamics
SubjectRadboudumc 2: Cancer development and immune defence RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
AIM: Before the introduction of new biomaterials for prolapse surgery, animal studies on the host response are required. Unfortunately, large variation in study design hampers obtaining an overview of the safety and efficacy, and translation to clinical practice. Our aim is to systematically review the literature on all outcome measures describing the host response in animal studies assessing the biocompatibility of urogynecologic surgical mesh implants for prolapse surgery. Furthermore, by meta-analysis, we aim to assess the effect of implantation and compare this to control animals receiving sham surgery or native tissue repair. METHODS: We performed a systematic search from inception to August 2020. Since this is an explorative study we included original, controlled, and noncontrolled animal studies describing any host response to the implant. Quantitative outcome measures reported ≥10 times in ≥2 articles were eligible for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifty articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and 36 articles were eligible for meta-analysis. In total, 154 outcome measures were defined and classified into (1) histomorphology, (2) biomechanics and, (3) macroscopic morphology. Animals with vaginal implants demonstrated significantly increased M1 and M2 macrophages, MMP-2, neovascularization, TNF-α, and stiffness, and lower vaginal contractility compared to control animals. CONCLUSION: The host response significantly differs in animals after vaginal mesh implantation compared to control animals, both pro- and anti-inflammatory. However, we observed a paucity in the uniformity of reported outcomes. For future animal studies, we propose the development of a core outcome set, which ideally predicts the host response in women.
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