Prediction of Global Functional Outcome and Post-Concussive Symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: External Validation of Prognostic Models in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Study ences From the Patient Perspective on Spinal Cord Stimulation for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed Method Analysis
SourceJournal of Neurotrauma, 38, 2, (2021), pp. 196-209
Article / Letter to editor
Display more detailsDisplay less details
Journal of Neurotrauma
SubjectRadboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
The majority of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are categorized as mild, according to a baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15. Prognostic models that were developed to predict functional outcome and persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) after mild TBI have rarely been externally validated. We aimed to externally validate models predicting 3-12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) or PPCS in adults with mild TBI. We analyzed data from the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) project, which included 2862 adults with mild TBI, with 6-month GOSE available for 2374 and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) results available for 1605 participants. Model performance was evaluated based on calibration (graphically and characterized by slope and intercept) and discrimination (C-index). We validated five published models for 6-month GOSE and three for 6-month PPCS scores. The models used different cutoffs for outcome and some included symptoms measured 2 weeks post-injury. Discriminative ability varied substantially (C-index between 0.58 and 0.79). The models developed in the Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury (CRASH) trial for prediction of GOSE <5 discriminated best (C-index 0.78 and 0.79), but were poorly calibrated. The best performing models for PPCS included 2-week symptoms (C-index 0.75 and 0.76). In conclusion, none of the prognostic models for early prediction of GOSE and PPCS has both good calibration and discrimination in persons with mild TBI. In future studies, prognostic models should be tailored to the population with mild TBI, predicting relevant end-points based on readily available predictors. INTRODUCTION: When neither pharmacological therapies nor alternative interventions provide sufficient pain relief, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can be used to treat Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS). Although it seems reasonable that quality of life (QoL)- and psychosocial-related factors contribute to the outcome of SCS since pain is a multidimensional experience, few qualitative studies have explored the expectations of SCS and experiences on SCS to treat FBSS from the patient perspective. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively map the FBSS patients' experiences with SCS and the effects of SCS on low back pain caused by FBSS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study with in-depth semi-structured interviews, assisted by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-questionnaire. RESULTS: Seven themes regarding patients' experiences, subdivided into 15 categories, were identified, including an understudied theme within this field of research, Spiritual Well-Being. "Acceptance" and "coping" emerged as pre-eminent motifs throughout these themes. Moreover, the realization of patients' expectations were variable throughout the presented themes. According to the BPI Questionnaire, four out of 13 patients (31%) had significant pain relief (≥50%). Seven out of 13 (54%) reported a ≥50% increase regarding enjoyment of life. CONCLUSION: Multiple QoL- and psychosocial-related themes are related to SCS-outcomes. In order to improve SCS-outcomes for both short- and long-term, these themes should be implemented as a multidimensional approach, both prior to implantation as during follow-up.
Upload full text
Use your RU credentials (u/z-number and password) tolog in with SURFconextto upload a file for processing by the repository team.