Predicting EFL vocabulary, reading, and spelling in English as a foreign language using paired-associate learning
Number of pages
SourceLearning and Individual Differences, 89, (2021), article 102021
Article / Letter to editor
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SW OZ BSI OLO
Learning and Individual Differences
SubjectLearning and Plasticity
L1 studies show that the paired-associate learning (PAL) of novel pronunciations, verbal learning, contributes to the prediction of individual differences in vocabulary, reading, and spelling development. The present study examined whether verbal learning predicts vocabulary and literacy development in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Dutch Grade 7 students (N = 455) completed a PAL task in which they learned to associate known Dutch words with their unknown English (spoken and written) translation. Both verbal and orthographic learning were assessed. Additionally, vocabulary, and reading and spelling skills were measured at the beginning of Grade 7 and five months later. The results showed that verbal learning contributed to development in vocabulary and reading accuracy. The contribution of orthographic learning was limited to development in spelling and pseudoword reading fluency. Overall, these findings are in line with findings in L1, indicating that especially verbal learning adds to the prediction of EFL development.
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