Prematurity, perinatal inflammatory stress, and the predisposition to develop chronic kidney disease beyond oligonephropathy
SourcePediatric Nephrology, 36, 7, (2021), pp. 1673-1681
Article / Letter to editor
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SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
Prematurity and perinatal stress, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and chorioamnionitis, are pathological processes creating an impaired intrauterine environment. These intrauterine factors are associated with the development of proteinuria, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) later in life. Initially, this was thought to be secondary to oligonephropathy, subsequent glomerular hypertrophy, and hyperfiltration, leading to glomerulosclerosis, a further decrease in nephron number, and finally CKD. Nowadays, there is increasing evidence that prematurity and perinatal stress affect not only nephron endowment but also the maturation of podocytes and vasculogenesis. IUGR is associated with podocyte damage and an aggravated course of nephrotic syndrome. Moreover, preterm birth and IUGR are known to cause upregulation of the postnatal renin-angiotensin system, resulting in hypertension. Chorioamnionitis causes damage to the glomeruli, thereby predisposing to the development of glomerulosclerosis. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the influence of prematurity, IUGR, and chorioamnionitis on the development of different glomerular structures. After summarizing human and experimental data on low nephron number in general, a specific focus on the current understanding of podocyte and glomerular capillary formation in relation to prematurity and different causes of perinatal stress is presented.
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