Imaging based flowchart for gallbladder polyp evaluation
SourceJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, 52, 1, (2021), pp. 68-78
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
SubjectRadboudumc 11: Renal disorders RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 14: Tumours of the digestive tract RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences; Radboudumc 14: Tumours of the digestive tract RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences; Radboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIHS: Radboud Institute for Health Sciences
BACKGROUND: Preoperative differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps, and the subsequent indication for cholecystectomy remains a clinical dilemma. The current 1 cm size threshold for neoplasia is unspecific. The aim of this study was to improve diagnostic work-up for gallbladder polyps using sonographic and MRI characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic polyps. METHODS: A prospective, exploratory study including patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallbladder polyp(s) was conducted. Patients underwent targeted transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) and MRI. Outcomes were sensitivity and specificity for polyp diagnosis, and the radiological characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic polyp types. Histopathology after cholecystectomy was used as reference standard. RESULTS: Histopathology demonstrated gallbladder polyps in 20/27 patients (74%): 14 cholesterol polyps, three adenomyomatosis, two adenomas and one gastric heterotopia. Sensitivity of polyp identification were 72% (routine TAUS) and 86% (targeted TAUS and MRI). Both adenomas were identified as neoplastic on targeted TAUS and MRI. Sonographic presentation as multiple, pedunculated polyps, either heterogeneous or with hyperechoic foci, or as single polyps containing cysts were limited to nonneoplastic polyps. On MRI hyperintense polyps on T1-weighted image were cholesterol polyps. An adenoma with high-grade dysplasia showed foci of decreased ADC values. We propose a checklist for polyp evaluation by targeted TAUS and a flowchart for radiological work-up of gallbladder polyps. CONCLUSIONS: The presented checklist and flowchart could aid diagnostic work-up for gallbladder polyps compared to current routine ultrasound, by elimination of nonneoplastic polyps and ultimately improve treatment decision for patients with gallbladder polyps.
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