CCN2 (Cellular Communication Network factor 2) in the bone marrow microenvironment, normal and malignant hematopoiesis
SourceJournal of Cell Communication and Signaling, 15, 1, (2021), pp. 25-56
Article / Letter to editor
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Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
SubjectRadboudumc 9: Rare cancers RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
CCN2, formerly termed Connective Tissue Growth Factor, is a protein belonging to the Cellular Communication Network (CCN)-family of secreted extracellular matrix-associated proteins. As a matricellular protein it is mainly considered to be active as a modifier of signaling activity of several different signaling pathways and as an orchestrator of their cross-talk. Furthermore, CCN2 and its fragments have been implicated in the regulation of a multitude of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, cell survival, apoptosis and the production of extracellular matrix products, as well as in more complex processes such as embryonic development, angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, fibrosis, mechanotransduction and inflammation. Its function is complex and context dependent, depending on cell type, state of differentiation and microenvironmental context. CCN2 plays a role in many diseases, especially those associated with fibrosis, but has also been implicated in many different forms of cancer. In the bone marrow (BM), CCN2 is highly expressed in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). CCN2 is important for MSC function, supporting its proliferation, migration and differentiation. In addition, stromal CCN2 supports the maintenance and longtime survival of hematopoietic stem cells, and in the presence of interleukin 7, stimulates the differentiation of pro-B lymphocytes into pre-B lymphocytes. Overexpression of CCN2 is seen in the majority of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemias, especially in certain cytogenetic subgroups associated with poor outcome. In acute myeloid leukemia, CCN2 expression is increased in MSCs, which has been associated with leukemic engraftment in vivo. In this review, the complex function of CCN2 in the BM microenvironment and in normal as well as malignant hematopoiesis is discussed. In addition, an overview is given of data on the remaining CCN family members regarding normal and malignant hematopoiesis, having many similarities and some differences in their function.
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