Coupling between macrophage phenotype, angiogenesis and bone formation by calcium phosphates
SourceMaterials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, 122, (2021), article 111948
Article / Letter to editor
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Materials Science & Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications
SubjectRadboudumc 10: Reconstructive and regenerative medicine RIMLS: Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences
The ability of calcium phosphate (CaP) materials to induce bone formation varies with their physicochemical properties, with surface topography as one of the most crucial triggers. In view of the natural wound healing processes (e.g., inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue formation and remodeling) initiated after surgical implantation, we here comparatively investigated the biological cascades occurring upon ectopic implantation of a tricalcium phosphate with submicron surface topography (TCP-S, osteoinductive) and a tricalcium phosphate with micron-scale topography (TCP-B, non-osteoinductive). In vitro, TCP-S facilitated M2 polarization of macrophages derived from a human leukemic cell line (THP-1) as shown by the enhanced secretion of TGF-β and CCL18. Interestingly, the conditioned media of polarized M2 macrophages on TCP-S enhanced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), while had no influence on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs). Following an intramuscular implantation in canines, TCP-S locally increased typical M2 macrophage markers (e.g., IL-10) at week 1 to 3 and enhanced blood vessel formation after week 3 as compared to TCP-B. Bone formation was observed histologically in TCP-S 6 weeks after implantation, and bone formation was inhibited when an angiogenesis inhibitor (KRN633) was loaded onto TCP-S. No bone formation was observed for TCP-B. The data presented herein suggest strong links between macrophage polarization, angiogenesis and CaP-induced bone formation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of calcium phosphate (CaP) materials to induce bone formation varies with their physicochemical properties, and the key physicochemical properties relevant to CaP-induced bone formation have been outlined in the last two decades. However, the biological mechanism underlying this material-driven osteoinduction remains largely unknown. This manuscript presented demonstrates strong links between surface topography, macrophage polarization, angiogenesis and bone formation in CaP materials implanted in non-osseous sites. The finding may provide new clues for further exploring the possible mechanism underlying osteoinduction by CaP materials.
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